Public Health

Public Health


Please click here to access the National Health Policy 2017.

The National Health Profile provides the latest data on all major health sector-related indicators in a comprehensive manner. It gives information on 6 major sectors i.e. Demographic, Socio-economic, Health Status, Health Finance, Health Infrastructure and Human Resources. 

According to the National Health Profile 2015, produced by the Central Bureau of Health Intelligence, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, (please click here to access):

Demographic indicators

• Infant Mortality Rate has declined considerably (40 per 1000 live births in 2013), however differentials of rural (44) and urban (27) are still high.

• Maternal Mortality Ratio (per 1 lakh live births) is highest in Assam (300) and lowest in Kerala (61) in 2011-13.

• The life expectancy at birth has increased from 49.7 years in 1970-75 to 66.1 years in 2006-10. During 2006-10, the life expectancy for females has been 67.7 years and males has been 64.6 years.   

• Among the states, sex ratio is least for Haryana (879) while among the UTs, Daman and Diu (618) lags behind. Kerala (1084) tops the list with maximum sex ratio.

• The Total Fertility Rate (TFR) for the country has been 2.3 in 2013. In rural areas it has been 2.5, and in urban areas it has been 1.8.

Socio-economic indicators

• Literacy rate stood at 73 percent in 2011. Literacy rate among females has been 64.6 percent and males has been 80.9 percent. Literacy rate in urban areas (84.1 percent) has been more as compared to the same in rural areas (67.8 percent). Literacy rate has been highest in Kerala (94 percent)

• The percentage of population below the poverty line (as per Tendulkar methodology) has been 21.9 percent in 2011-12. The percentage of population below the poverty line in rural areas has been 25.7 percent and in urban areas has been 13.7 percent.

• The per capita Net National Income at current prices increased almost 3 times from Rs. 24,143 in 2004-05 to Rs. 74,920 in 2013-14.

• The per capita per day net availability of cereals has increased from 386.2 gm in 2001 to 468.9 gm in 2013. Similarly, the per capita per day net availability of pulses has increased from 30 gm in 2001 to 41.9 gm in 2013.

• Slum population in India is projected to increase from 9.30 crore in 2011 to 10.47 crore in 2017.

• Of the total 1.34 crore residences in slums, nearly 58.5 percent are in good condition, 37.4 percent are in livable condition and 4.1 percent are in dilapidated condition. 

Health status

• Based on available evidence, cardiovascular disease (24 percent), chronic respiratory disease (11 percent), cancer (6 percent) and diabetes (2 percent) are the leading cause of mortality in India.

• The total number of dengue cases in India has grown from 28,292 in 2010 to 40,425 in 2014. The total number of dengue related deaths stood at 131 in 2014.

• The total number of Japanese Encephalitis cases in India has grown from 555 in 2010 to 1,652 in 2014. The total number of Japanese Encephalitis related deaths stood at 292 in 2014.

• The total number of malaria cases in India has grown from nearly 16 lakh in 2010 to 10.71 lakh in 2014. The total number of malaria related deaths stood at 535 in 2014.

• The total number of Chikungunya fever cases in India has reduced from 48,176 in 2010 to 15,445 in 2014. 

• Nearly 47 percent of deliveries in India during 2012-13 were institutional whereas 52.3 percent deliveries took place at home. 

• Nearly 40.5 percent of children under 3 years of age were breastfed within an hour of birth in 2012-13. 

• At the national level, nearly 54 percent of children aged 12-23 months received full vaccination during 2012-13.

• The incidence of infanticide was 82 and foeticide was 210 in 2012.

Health finance

• Per capita public expenditure on health in nominal terms has gone up from Rs. 621 in 2009-10 to Rs. 1280 in 2014-15.

• Public expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP has gone up from 1.12 percent in 2009-10 to 1.26 percent in 2014-15.

• The Centre-state share in total public expenditure on health has changed from 36:64 in 2009-10 to 30:70 in 2014-15.

• Out-of-pocket (OOP) medical expenditure incurred during 2011-12 has been Rs. 146 per capita per month for urban India and Rs. 95 for rural India.

• Over 60 percent of total OOP health expenditure is on medicines, both in rural and urban India in 2011-12.

• As a share of total consumption expenditure, OOP expenditure on health has been 6.7 percent in rural India and 5.5 percent in urban India in 2011-12.

• Per capita OOP expenditure as well as the share of OOP in total consumption expenditure was positively correlated with consumption expenditure fractiles; higher fractiles had higher levels of both per capita OOP and share of OOP in consumption expenditure in 2011-12.

• Among all the states, Kerala had the highest per capita OOP medical expenditure as well as its share in total consumption expenditure in 2011-12.

• Around 22 crore individuals were covered under any health insurance in 2013-14. This means 18 percent of the population has been covered under any health insurance.

Human resources in health sector

• The total number of doctors possessing recognized medical qualification (under the IMC Act), registered with state medical councils or Medical Council of India, stood at 15,976 in 2014.

• The total number of dental surgeons registered with the Central/ State Dental Councils of India stood at 1.54 lakhs in 2014, which was 21,720 in 1994.

• The total number of Government allopathic doctors stood at 1.06 lakhs and the total number of Government dental surgeons stood at 5,614.

• As on 31 December, 2014, the total number of Auxiliary Nurse Midwives (ANMs) stood at 7.86 lakh, whereas Registered Nurses & Registered Midwives (RN & RM) stood at 17.8 lakhs and Lady Health Visitors (LHV) stood at 55,914.

• As on 27 June, 2014, the total number of pharmacists stood at 6.64 lakh.

Health infrastructure

• The total number of licensed blood banks in India as on February 2015 is 2760.

• There are 20,306 hospitals having 6.76 lakh beds in India. There are 16,816 hospitals in rural areas having 1.84 lakh beds and 3,490 hospitals in urban areas having 4.92 lakh beds.

• The number of medical colleges in India has more than doubled from 146 in 1991-92 to 398 in 2014-15.

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